CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
[To be added... ]
[Latin: “To whose benefit?”] A wise Roman adage that means that when investigating crimes, or when trying to understand politics (which also often amounts to a long series of crimes), the best place to start is usually by asking yourself, “Who stands to benefit from this?”. In bourgeois society, for example, it will almost always be found that governmental decisions are made which promote the economic and political interests of the ruling capitalist class.
Most people associate the term ‘cult’ with unorthodox or outrageous religious sects characterized by fanatical devotion to the doctrine and leadership of the sect and the refusal to even seriously entertain the possibility that anything the top leader might say could be mistaken. But there are also similar political cults. The key concept in political cults, too, is devotion, the devotion of the adherents to every single aspect of the doctrine of the cult and an unquestioning acceptance of whatever the top leader says.
Cult members are conditioned by powerful social pressures within the cult toward:
1) The belief that their top leader is an indispensable individual, and in effect, a savior not only for their group alone, but for their whole country and even for all humanity;
2) Inability to question any significant aspect of the doctrine of the group, unless and until the top leader makes a change in the official doctrine;
3) Frequent direct quotation of their leader, especially when asked by outsiders to explain the doctrines and ideas of their group;
4) Fear of publicly saying anything else; in other words, the fear of getting approved doctrine slightly “wrong”;
5) A tremendous reluctance to raise any disagreements or criticisms of the group (let alone of the top leader), because they will be harshly pounced on, and possibly excommunicated, expelled and shunned, if they do;
6) A great reluctance to raise any new ideas of any kind, even if they don’t seem to go against current doctrine (because these ideas might be interpreted by the leadership that way);
7) A strong tendency to hide their own personal shortcomings and failures to successfully carry out the instructions of the group and its leader (because they similarly know they will be severely attacked if shortcomings and errors come to light). This is doubly the case because of the often extreme demands which are placed on the members;
8) A strong tendency toward sectarianism, and the strong beliefs that only their own leader and group can generate knowledge about the correct path forward; and even the subtle feeling that anyone outside the group is really sort of the enemy (even if they have never directly criticized the group);
9) A strong tendency toward monasticism, of making the group and its leader the entire focus of their whole life, and of restricting or cutting off even social relationships with other people and the masses (especially if they ever express any strong opinions the group disapproves of, and certainly if they ever express any major criticisms of the group or its leader whatsoever);
10) A tendency to nevertheless “burn out” and drop away after a number of years when the false predictions and expectations of the group continue to prove wrong time after time—especially if they are among the members of the group who get blamed for these failures. (The leader of the group rarely admits to any personal role in these failures of the group, except where it is absolutely unavoidable. Even then various excuses will be offered up.);
11) The tendency to seize upon the defections and departures of other members as an opportunity to blame them for the failures of the group, and to view them as having been hidden enemies who the group is now well rid of;
12) A tendency to still be infected with much of the outlook of the group and its leader even if they themselves do drop out or get forced out, and the tendency towards an inability to think how to organize and operate a political group in any other fundamentally different way. (Indoctrination runs deep.) Of course over time, and with the exposure to different ideas, more of the lingering indoctrination can be expected to fade away.
All of this is a total travesty of Marxism, and is in essence a religious approach to politics rather than a rational, democratic, and scientific approach. It is hard to understand how anyone could ever think otherwise.
A clear current example of a political cult in the United States is the Revolutionary Communist Party with its top leader Bob Avakian being the undeniable object of devotion by the members of the group, who are required to promote a “culture of appreciation, promotion, and popularization around the leadership, the body of work and the method and approach of Bob Avakian.” (See: AP&P ).
CULT OF THE INDIVIDUAL or CULT OF PERSONALITY
See: PERSONALITY CULT
1. In the generic sense, any movement to revolutionize the superstructure of society, and especially the sphere of ideology, in a socialist country in order to bring the superstructure more into conformance with the new socialist economic base of society.
2. The shorter name often used for the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution which began in 1966 in Maoist China.
A largely pseudo-scientific and absurdly pretentious branch of modern academia focused on the study of bourgeois cultural phenomena. This sphere of “studies” arose originally out of non-revolutionary academic “Marxism” or “leftism”.
See also: “WESTERN MARXISM”
All the accumulated social consciousness (knowledge, opinions, abilities, etc.) of a society, especially in regard to its manner of living, and the material results of that social consciousness, which together characterize the historical stage attained in the development of the society. Culture may therefore be divided into intellectual culture, consisting of all social knowledge and consciousness, and material culture, consisting of all the material wealth and means of producing this wealth. Culture in both its intellectual and material forms undergoes constant development, and is transmitted from one generation to the next.
See also: SOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS, IDEOLOGY
CURRENCY WARS [International Capitalist Finance]
One of the many forms of international competition between the bourgeoisies of different countries, wherein each country tries to lower the value of its own currency in relation to the other major currencies in order to promote the sale of its own goods in foreign countries.
In the capitalist-imperialist era, with the intensified systemic problems of overproduction, imperialist countries need to sell more and more products in foreign countries (as well as to export capital itself, i.e. to invest in other countries). While, because of the concentration of production (into oligopoly or monopoly) there is less and less price competition within each capitalist-imperialist country, there still remains substantial international competition for commodities based on price (as well as on other factors, such as quality and reliability). However, commodities are priced in terms of different currencies (either national currencies like the dollar or the yen, or else regional currencies like the euro). Therefore, the actual differences in prices also depends on the exchange rate between currencies. It is thus to the advantage of the capitalist exporters from each country to have their own currency continually devalued in relationship to the currencies of competing countries, which will in turn lower their effective prices in foreign countries and make it easier for them to sell their products.
The easiest way for a country to drive down the exchange rate for its own currency is to simply print more and more of its own currency. Of course, too much of this sort of thing can soon lead to harmful inflation or even disastrous run-away inflation within that country. However, countries whose currencies are also used as international reserve currencies can get away with inflating their currency to a much greater degree. The U.S. dollar is still the most important reserve currency (though its centrality is slowly diminishing). Other important reserve currencies include the euro, the yen, the British pound and the Swiss franc. (The Chinese yuan [RMB] is just beginning to become an international reserve currency, though it will almost certainly become more important in the future.) So it is the U.S., Europe, Japan and Britain, and a few other stable countries such as Switzerland, who are mostly contenders in these international currency wars at the present time.
The U.S. has been running huge Federal budget deficits of a trillion dollars per year (or more!) since the current economic crisis took a serious turn for the worse in 2008. This has led to a significant rise in the value of some other currencies against the dollar, including the yen and the euro—even though Europe and Japan have their own extremely serious financial problems. And Britain has been in even worse financial and economic shape, which accounts for the recent decline of the pound against the dollar. In response to all this, Japan has begun printing more and more yen for the international market. Because all these more important currencies were being inflated at roughly the same rate overall, international currency speculators began turning to the more stable Swiss franc. But this then began to drive up the prices of Swiss goods overseas and was seriously harming Swiss exports. Therefore, in 2012 Switzerland itself began to print more and more francs to inflate its currency and save its export markets.
The basic problem, of course, is the world overproduction crisis. Currency wars are merely a means of pushing some of the pain in one country off onto other countries. In no way can they resolve the basic overproduction problem of capitalism!
Note that from the point of view of exporting capital, it is actually better to have a strong national currency! For example, this would allow the purchase of foreign companies with fewer units of one’s own currency. The fact that most major ruling classes prefer to have weaker currencies shows that they are more concerned to expand foreign markets than they are to export capital. The export of capital in the imperialist era is overall of ever-growing importance, but it is still in second place compared to the importance of promoting foreign markets, at least in the eyes of most national bouregoisies today.
CURRENT ACCOUNT BALANCE [International Economics]
One of three components of the international balance of payments between countries. The current account balance includes the value of imports and exports as well as receipts from or spending abroad in other ways, such as through tourism or workers in foreign countries sending money back home. It also includes receipts from foreign property income.
For many years now the United States has been the country with by far the greatest current account deficit, while China, Germany and Japan have usually had the greatest current account surpluses.
A recent, sometimes semi-serious, term for the growing number of young workers who are vicariously employed as freelance contract workers and who do such work mostly via the Internet.
Two books on the topic are: Ursula Huws, The Making of a Cybertariat: Virtual Work in a Real World (NY: Monthly Review Press, 2003); and Ursula Huws, Labor in the Digital Economy (NY: Monthly Review Press, 2014). See also: CONTINGENT WORKERS, GIG WORK, PRECARIAT
“By 2015 the precariat is evolving into a cybertariat, as digital technologies become more central to organizing and even constituting labor. The Economist credits the ubiquity of the smartphone for moving freelancing from the margins to the center of capitalism. [Jan. 3, 2015, p. 18.] By 2025 experts anticipate that one of every three global labor ‘transactions’ will be conducted online as part of the ‘on-demand’ or ‘crowd labor’ economy, with a few gigantic digital hiring hall corporations using their networks and apps to get temp labor for employers. Informal work, or freelancing, already accounts for around one-third of the US workforce, fully 53 million workers, according to an Edelman Berland report prepared for the Freelancers Union. A Christian Science Monitor report stated that up to 50 percent of the new jobs in the recovery [from the Great Recession] were freelance positions. Economic Modeling Specialists Intl., a labor market analytics firm, calculated that by 2014 some 18 percent of all US jobs were performed by part-time freelancers or part-time independent contractors. There was a 60 percent increase in the number of these part-time gig jobs from 2001.” —Robert W. McChesney and John Nichols, People Get Ready: The Fight Against a Jobless Economy and a Citizenless Democracy (2016), p. 71.
CZECHOSLOVAK CORPS (In Russia during the Bolshevik Revolution)
An army of Czech and Slovak soldiers which under the influence of the Entente alliance in World War I revolted and, with the active participation by the Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries, joined the attempt by the imperialist countries to suppress the Russian revolution.
“The Czechoslovak corps was formed in Russia prior to the Great October
Socialist Revolution from Czech and Slovak prisoners of war, soliders of the
Austro-Hungarian army, for waging war against Germany. After the establishment of Soviet
power, the Czechoslovak corps, by agreement with the Soviet Government, was to be sent
to France through Vladivostok. But the counter-revolutionary commanders of the corps,
perfidiously violating the agreement with the Government of the R.S.F.S.R. on the
surrender of weapons and deceiving the Czechoslovak soldiers, at the end of May 1918
began an armed insurrection at the bidding of the Entente. Acting in close co-ordination
with the whiteguards and kulaks, the Czechoslovak whiteguard corps seized Chelyabinsk,
Penza, Tomsk, Omsk, Samara and other towns. Nevertheless, a considerable section of the
Czechoslovak prisoners of war did not succumb to the anti-Soviet and nationalist
propaganda of the reactionary top stratum of the Corps; over 10,000 Czechs and Slovaks
fought in the ranks of the Red Army.
“In the autumn of 1918 the Volga area was freed by the Red Army. The revolt of the Czechoslovak corps was finally suppressed at the end of 1919 together with the rout of Kolchak.” —Note 2 in Lenin, SW 3.
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